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Thursday, June 25, 2009


Ghaffar Health Clinic is the website which publish important articles that encourage systems thinking, offer thorough scientific approaches for solving tough health care problems and diseases, and address policy implications. The pages uses an interdisciplinary approach, coating such topics as Diet, Fitness, HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Heart Disease.

providing a single forum for researchers, Students, practitioners of health care services and management, the journal fosters the development and exchange of new ideas and the discussion of important findings in the field. Moreover, it disseminates knowledge rapidly across traditional disciplinary boundaries.

Personality Disorder


Personality disorder is a general term for a type of mental illness in which your ways of thinking, perceiving situations and relating to others are dysfunctional. There are many specific types of personality disorders.

In general, having a personality disorder means you have a rigid and potentially self-destructive or self-denigrating pattern of thinking and behaving no matter what the situation. This leads to distress in your life or impairment of your ability to go about routine functions at work, school or social situations. In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you, and you may blame others for your circumstances


General symptoms of a personality disorder
General signs and symptoms that may indicate a personality disorder include:

  • Frequent mood swings
  • Stormy relationships
  • Social isolation
  • Angry outbursts
  • Suspicion and mistrust of others
  • Difficulty making friends
  • A need for instant gratification
  • Poor impulse control
  • Alcohol or substance abuse

Specific types of personality disorders
The specific types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on similar characteristics and symptoms.

Cluster A. These are personality disorders characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior and include:

Paranoid personality disorder

  • Distrust and suspicion of others
  • Believing that others are trying to harm you
  • Emotional detachment
  • Hostility

Schizoid personality disorder

  • Lack of interest in social relationships
  • Limited range of emotional expression
  • Inability to pick up normal social cues
  • Appearing dull or indifferent to others

Schizotypal personality disorder

  • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs or behavior
  • Perceptual alterations, such as those affecting touch
  • Discomfort in close relationships
  • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
  • Indifference to others
  • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts
  • Believing that messages are hidden for you in public speeches or displays

Cluster B. These are personality disorders characterized by dramatic, overly emotional thinking or behavior and include:

Antisocial (formerly, sociopathic) personality disorder

  • Disregard for others
  • Persistent lying or stealing
  • Recurring difficulties with the law
  • Repeatedly violating the rights of others
  • Aggressive, often violent behavior
  • Disregard for the safety of self or others

Borderline personality disorder

  • Impulsive and risky behavior
  • Volatile relationships
  • Unstable mood
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Fear of being alone

Histrionic personality disorder

  • Constantly seeking attention
  • Excessively emotional
  • Extreme sensitivity to others' approval
  • Unstable mood
  • Excessive concern with physical appearance

Narcissistic personality disorder

  • Believing that you're better than others
  • Fantasizing about power, success and attractiveness
  • Exaggerating your achievements or talents
  • Expecting constant praise and admiration
  • Failing to recognize other people's emotions and feelings

Cluster C. These are personality disorders characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior and include:

Avoidant personality disorder

  • Hypersensitivity to criticism or rejection
  • Feeling inadequate
  • Social isolation
  • Extreme shyness in social situations
  • Timidity

Dependent personality disorder

  • Excessive dependence on others
  • Submissiveness toward others
  • A desire to be taken care of
  • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment
  • Urgent need to start a new relationship when one has ended

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

  • Preoccupation with orderliness and rules
  • Extreme perfectionism
  • Desire to be in control of situations
  • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects
  • Inflexibility

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder isn't the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder, a type of anxiety disorder.

When to see a doctor
If you have any signs or symptoms of a personality disorder, see your doctor, mental health provider or other health care professional. If untreated, personality disorders can cause significant problems in your life, and they may get worse.

Helping a loved one
If you have a loved one who you think may have symptoms of a personality disorder, have an open and honest discussion about your concerns. You may not be able to force someone to seek professional care, but you can offer encouragement and support. You can also help your loved one find a qualified doctor or mental health provider and make an appointment. You may even be able to go to an appointment with him or her. If you have a loved one who has harmed himself or herself, or is seriously considering doing so, take him or her to the hospital or call for emergency help



Asthma is a chronic disease of the lungs. In New York State (NYS), more than 1.1 million adults have asthma 1. Asthma occurs at any age but is more common in children than adults. Nationally, nearly one in 13 school-age children have asthma, and that rate is rising more rapidly in preschool-aged children and those living in urban inner cities than in any other group. Although there is no cure for asthma, asthma attacks can be prevented and controlled with proper care. New York is actively working with health care providers, community coalitions, schools, families and many others to fight asthma so people with asthma can live a full and active life.

This web site is designed to provide accurate, current and useful information for people with asthma and for the people who care for them. New resources will be added often. Please check back frequently.


Sexuality is often defined simply in terms of sex, but sexuality encompasses many different aspects of our lives beyond just sex alone. Sexuality is determined in part by our genetics and in part by the social expression of our underlining heredity and interaction with others. Three common ways in which sexuality has been described are in terms of: sexual behavior, sexual orientation, and sexual identity. However sexuality like many other aspects of our lives can be best understood holistically whereby both the internal (i.e. sexual identity, sexual orientation, etc.) and external (i.e. gender socialization, voluntary celibacy, etc.) factors that influence sexuality can be addressed.

The majority of educational resources available on sexuality focus on internal factors such as sexual behavior, sexual identity, and sexual orientation. These factors are important to sexuality given that they are responsible for influencing how we think, feel, and act out our unconscious expressions of sexuality. Although the internal factors related to sexuality are in part genetically determined (also referred to as biological determinism), human beings are rational beings and therefore have the ability to exercise choice in determining whether or not these internal factors get expressed publicly. Moreover, internal factors are not necessarily static and thus can change over time as we age and experience new places, situations, and people.
However what often gets neglected in discussions on sexuality is a dialogue on the diversity of external influences on sexuality. The most well known external influence on sexuality is gender socialization, which occurs in almost all aspects of our community including our family, school, media, and even politics. Some external influences that are less often associated to the development and expression of sexuality are sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, the presence of conflict or war, and spirituality, which could be thought of as both internally and externally influencing.

Of course the two greatest influencing factors on sexuality throughout history have been culture and religion. Culture is one of the central ways human beings define and express themselves including in terms of how we develop sexually. Cross-culturally sexuality means different things, and the expression of sexuality has different restrictions (or none at all) depending on where you go and who you talk to. Generally speaking, culture carries the most weight in sanctioning the expression, suppression, misuse, and even loving gesture of sexuality.
Despite what some people might think religion’s influence over sexuality is not about restrictions instead religion acts as a means by which sexuality can be channeled for the purposes of expression and even celebration. Although different religious doctrines propose a diversity of mandates when it comes to the ways in which sexuality should be channeled, most religions produce specifications on the basis of martial status, sex, and one’s personal spiritual growth.

Over the years as sexual expression has increased in many parts of the world so has the use of sexuality for the purposes of abuse. Project Respect ( is a non-profit organization that focuses on educating youth, young adults, and adults on various means of prevention with concern to sexual violence (i.e. rape, sexual assault) and on the sharing of prevention strategies with the rest of the community. The ultimate goal of this organization is to erase the presence of violence in sexuality and to promote a world of sexual expression without fear of harm.

Heart Attack


A heart attack usually occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood through a coronary artery — a blood vessel that feeds blood to a part of the heart muscle. Interrupted blood flow to your heart can damage or destroy a part of the heart muscle.

Years ago, a heart attack was often fatal. Thanks to better awareness of heart attack signs and symptoms and improved treatments, most people who have a heart attack now survive.

Your overall lifestyle — what you eat, how often you exercise and the way you deal with stress — plays a role in your recovery from a heart attack. In addition, a healthy lifestyle can help you prevent a first or subsequent heart attack by controlling risk factors that contribute to the narrowing of the coronary arteries that supply blood to your heart.


Common signs and symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • Pressure, fullness or a squeezing pain in the center of your chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
  • Pain extending beyond your chest to your shoulder, arm, back, or even to your teeth and jaw
  • Increasing episodes of chest pain
  • Prolonged pain in the upper abdomen
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Impending sense of doom
  • Fainting
  • Nausea and vomiting

Signs and symptoms of a heart attack in women may be different or less noticeable than heart attack symptoms in men. In addition to the symptoms above, heart attack symptoms in women can include:

  • Abdominal pain or "heartburn"
  • Clammy skin
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Unusual or unexplained fatigue

Not all people who have heart attacks experience the same ones or experience them to the same degree. Many heart attacks aren't as dramatic as the ones you've seen on TV. Some people have no symptoms at all. Still, the more signs and symptoms you have, the greater the likelihood that you may be having a heart attack.

A heart attack can occur anytime — at work or play, while you're resting, or while you're in motion. Some heart attacks strike suddenly, but many people who experience a heart attack have warning signs and symptoms hours, days or weeks in advance. The earliest predictor of an attack may be recurrent chest pain (angina) that's triggered by exertion and relieved by rest. Angina is caused by temporary, insufficient blood flow to the heart, also known as "cardiac ischemia."

Back Ache


Back pain is a common complaint. Four out of five people in the United States will experience low back pain at least once during their lives. It's one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor or miss work.

On the bright side, you can prevent most back pain. If prevention fails, simple home treatment and proper body mechanics will often heal your back within a few weeks and keep it functional for the long haul. Surgery is rarely needed to treat back pain.


Your back is an intricate structure composed of bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons and disks — the cartilage-like pads that act as cushions between the segments of your spine. Back pain can arise from problems with any of these component parts. In some people, no specific cause for their back pain can be found.

Back pain most often occurs from strained muscles and ligaments, from improper or heavy lifting, or after a sudden awkward movement. Sometimes a muscle spasm can cause back pain.

Structural problems
In some cases, back pain may be caused by structural problems, such as:

  • Bulging or ruptured disks. Disks act as cushions between the vertebrae in your spine. Sometimes, the soft material inside a disk may bulge out of place or rupture and press on a nerve. But many people who have bulging or herniated disks experience no pain from the condition.
  • Sciatica. If a bulging or herniated disk presses on the main nerve that travels down your leg, it can cause sciatica — sharp, shooting pain through the buttock and back of the leg.
  • Arthritis. The joints most commonly affected by osteoarthritis are the hips, hands, knees and lower back. In some cases arthritis in the spine can lead to a narrowing of the space around the spinal cord, a condition called spinal stenosis.
  • Skeletal irregularities. Back pain can occur if your spine curves in an abnormal way. If the natural curves in your spine become exaggerated, your upper back may look abnormally rounded or your lower back may arch excessively. Scoliosis, a condition in which your spine curves to the side, also may lead to back pain.
  • Osteoporosis. Compression fractures of your spine's vertebrae can occur if your bones become porous and brittle.

Rare but serious conditions
In rare cases, back pain may be related to:

  • Cauda equina syndrome. This is a serious neurological problem affecting a bundle of nerve roots that serve your lower back and legs. It can cause weakness in the legs, numbness in the "saddle" or groin area, and loss of bowel or bladder control.
  • Cancer in the spine. A tumor on the spine can press on a nerve, causing back pain.
  • Infection of the spine. If a fever and a tender, warm area accompany back pain, the cause could be an infection.



Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer also has the ability to spread throughout your body.


Signs and symptoms caused by cancer will vary depending on what part of the body is affected. Some general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to, cancer include:

  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Lump or thickening that can be felt under the skin
  • Pain
  • Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that won't heal, or changes to existing moles
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent cough
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Hoarseness
  • Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating


Cancer is caused by damage (mutations) to the DNA within cells. Your DNA contains a set of instructions for your cells, telling them how to grow and divide. Normal cells often develop mutations in their DNA, but they have the ability to repair most of these mutations. Or, if they can't make the repairs, the cells often die. However, certain mutations aren't repaired, causing the cells to grow and become cancerous. Mutations also cause cancer cells to live beyond their normal cell life span. This causes the cancerous cells to accumulate.

In some cancers, accumulating cells form a tumor. But not all cancers form tumors. For example, leukemia is a cancer that involves blood, bone marrow, the lymphatic system and the spleen, but doesn't form a single mass or tumor.

The initial genetic mutation is just the beginning of the process by which cancer develops. Scientists believe you need a number of changes within a cell in order to develop cancer, including:

  • An initiator to cause a genetic mutation. Sometimes you're born with this genetic mutation. Other times a genetic mutation is caused by forces within your body, such as hormones, viruses and chronic inflammation. Genetic mutations can also be caused by forces outside of your body, such as ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens) in your environment.
  • A promoter to cause rapid cell growth. Promoters take advantage of genetic mutations created by initiators. Promoters cause cells to divide more rapidly. This could lead to an accumulation of cells, such as a tumor. Promoters could be inherited, could come from inside your body or could come from outside your body.
  • A progressor to cause cancer to become aggressive and spread. Without a progressor a tumor may remain benign and localized. Progressors make cancers more aggressive, more likely to invade and destroy nearby tissue, and more likely to spread to other parts of your body. Like initiators and promoters, progressors could be inherited or they could come from environmental sources.

Your genetic makeup, forces within your body, your lifestyle choices and your environment can all set the stage for cancer or help complete the process once it's started. For instance, if you've inherited a genetic mutation that predisposes you to cancer, you may be more likely than other people to develop cancer when exposed to a certain cancer-causing substance. The genetic mutation begins the cancer process, and the cancer-causing substance could play a role in further cancer development. Likewise, smokers who work with asbestos are more likely to develop lung cancer than are smokers who don't work with asbestos. That's because tobacco smoke and asbestos both play roles in cancer development.

Food poisoning


Food poisoning, also referred to as food-borne illness, is a gastrointestinal disorder that results from eating contaminated food. Infectious organisms — including various bacteria, viruses and parasites — are the most common cause of food poisoning. Harmful toxins and chemicals (noninfectious agents) also can cause illnesses, but this is less common.

Infectious organisms can contaminate food at any point during its processing or production. Contamination can also occur at home if food is incorrectly handled, improperly cooked or inadequately stored. Whether you become sick after eating contaminated food depends on the organism in the food, the amount of exposure you've had to it, your age and your health.

Food poisoning symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, which can start just hours after eating the food. Most often, food poisoning is mild and resolves without treatment. But some cases can be severe, requiring hospitalization.

What can you do to prevent food poisoning? Keep hot food hot and cold food cold. And keep everything — especially your hands — clean. If you follow these basic rules, you'll be less likely to become ill from food poisoning.



“When the history of our times is written, will we be remembered as the generation that turned our backs in a moment of a global crisis or will it be recorded that we did the right thing?” - Nelson Mandela
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus is transferred from person to person when an HIV positive individual’s blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk comes in contact with another person’s bloodstream (through the mouth, throat, or breaks in the skin). This viral infection usually occurs during unprotected sexual activity, but can also occur between an HIV/AIDS positive mother and her child, through an unsecure blood transfusion, and by sharing used needles.
Once infected it takes as long as 8 to 10 years for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus to effectively breakdown the bodies’ natural immune defences, which leads to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS for short. Although scientists around the world have been working hard to obtain a cure or even a vaccine for the HIV, none are currently available.

According to the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2007), about 33.2 million people are infected with HIV worldwide (which is 16% lower than 2006 estimates. So, far 2.1 million people have lost their lives to AIDS. Youth are particularly at risk as young people between the ages of 15 to 24 account for more than 40% of new HIV infections. Young women are also more at risk for contracting HIV; three times more likely than males in Sub-Saharan Africa and almost two times more likely in the Caribbean.

The most devastating effect on the world’s youth, as a result of the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus around the world, has been the alarming increase in the number of children and young people who have been orphaned by the disease. In 2007, there was an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans in sub-Saharan Africa.

The new face of HIV/AIDS is undoubtedly global leadership or more importantly youth leadership and education. Youth leaders are raising their voices on the issue of HIV/AIDS all over the world while spreading a message of change and healing among their young peers. For example groups such as “The Young Women of Color Leadership Council” who are striving to educate at-risk youth of color on issues of HIV prevention and community leadership; “Youth Visioning” who aim to encourage and support young leaders living on small islands around the world to propose and implement projects that will effectively impact how youth experience and understand HIV/AIDS; and the “Rural Sensitization Campaign in Cameroon” who is actively challenging youth to learn and be trained on healthy sexual practices, HIV prevention and transmission, testing, and treatment, in addition to targeting young women and men, this campaign aims to involve parents and children HIV/AIDS educational programmes.

There are several other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and the marginalization of people living with HIV/AIDS, which include high levels of: Severe poverty, unemployment, inadequate medical care, and risky sexual activity. However an additional factor that often goes unnoticed is the presence of stigma that becomes associated to people living with aids (PLWA) and who have openly revealed their HIV/AIDS status in their community. Stigma may result in isolation, physical and verbal abuse, and even in the premature death of PLWA. The spread of stigma among PLWA is preventable, but it requires the community and grassroots organizations to work together to minimize the fear and the overemphasis on the problems associated to HIV/AIDS when spreading awareness about the disease.



The New York State Arthritis Program was created to help New Yorkers learn how to better manage their disease. The program has partnered with a variety of organizations to better inform the public about arthritis and how to live with the disease more effectively and comfortably. In New York State, approximately 3.7 million (26.1%) adults live with arthritis and, of those, nearly 56% of New York adults aged 65 years and older, or 1.4 million, have arthritis. In 2003, the total direct and indirect costs of arthritis care in New York were $8.7 billion. These numbers are expected to increase as the state's population continues to age.

Flat Feed


If you have flatfeet, the arch on the inside of your feet is flattened. It's a common and generally painless condition. Sometimes, flatfeet occur because your arches don't develop during childhood. In other cases, flatfeet may occur as you age or after you've had a pregnancy.

While flatfeet usually won't cause any problems, if the condition causes your ankles to turn inward, you may have problems in your feet, ankles and knees. Simple corrective devices are available that can help you prevent some of the complications of flatfeet.



The classic signs and symptoms of pregnancy — tender breasts, nausea, fatigue, weight gain — probably come as no surprise. But what about itchy skin? In late pregnancy, a condition known as cholestasis of pregnancy may trigger intense itching, particularly on the hands and feet.

By definition, cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile — a digestive fluid — from the liver is blocked. Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs inside the liver. Pregnancy is one of many possible causes of intrahepatic cholestasis. Other names for cholestasis of pregnancy include obstetric cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Other than intense itching, cholestasis of pregnancy poses few problems for mothers. Cholestasis of pregnancy can be dangerous for a developing baby, however. Early delivery is usually recommended.


Signs and symptoms of cholestasis of pregnancy may include:

  • Intense itching
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Light-colored bowel movements
  • Yellow eyes or skin
  • Abdominal pain

Often, however, intense itching — particularly on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet — is the only symptom of cholestasis of pregnancy. The itching may be worse, even intolerable, at night. The itching is most common during the third trimester of pregnancy, but sometimes

Cosmetic Surgery

Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. While famous for aesthetic surgery, plastic surgery also includes two main fields: plastic and reconstructive surgery. The word "plastic" derives from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape; its use here is not connected with the synthetic polymer material known as plastic.

Techniques and procedures

In plastic surgery the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is one of the most common procedures. (In traditional surgery a "graft" is a piece of living tissue, organ, etc., that is transplanted).

  • Autografts: Skin grafts taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be:
    • Cultured Sheets of epithelial cells in vitro.
    • Synthetic compounds (e.g., Integra—a 2 layered dermal substitute consisting superficially of silicone and deeply of bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans).
  • Allografts: Skin grafts taken from a donor of the same species.
  • Xenografts: Skin grafts taken from a donor of a different species.

Usually, good results are expected from plastic surgery that emphasizes:

  • Careful planning of incisions so that they fall in the line of natural skin folds or lines.
  • Appropriate choice of wound closure.
  • Use of best available suture materials.
  • Early removal of exposed sutures so that the wound is held closed by buried sutures.

Reconstructive Surgery

Reconstructive Plastic Surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by:

  • burns
  • traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures
  • congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip, or cleft palate
  • developmental abnormalities
  • infection or disease
  • removal of cancers or tumours, such as a mastectomy for a breast cancer, a head or neck cancer or an abdominal invasion by a colon cancer

Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance.

Common reconstructive surgical procedures are: breast reconstruction for women who have had a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors, creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent, and closing skin and mucosa defects after removal of tumors in the head and neck region.

Plastic surgeons developed the use of microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. tissue flaps of skin, muscle, bone, fat or a combination, may be removed from the body, moved to another site on the body and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as 1-2 mm in diameter.

The most common reconstructive procedures are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery and breast reduction. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the number of reconstructive breast reductions for women increased in 2007 by 2 percent from the year before. Breast reduction in men also increased in 2007 by 7 percent.

Cosmetic or Aesthetic Surgery

Aesthetic Surgery involves techniques intended for the "enhancement" of appearance through surgical and medical techniques, and is specifically concerned with maintaining normal appearance, restoring it, or enhancing it beyond the average level toward some aesthetic ideal.

In 2006, nearly 11 million cosmetic surgeries were performed in the United States alone. The number of cosmetic sprocedures performed in the United States has increased over 50 percent since the start of the century. Nearly 12 million cosmetic surgeries were performed in 2007, with the five most common being breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The increased use of cosmetic surgery crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among African-Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business. [8]

The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures are listed below. Most of these types of surgery are more commonly known by their "common names." These are also listed when pertinent.

Plastic surgery sub-specialities

Plastic surgery is a broad field, and may be subdivided further. Plastic surgery training and approval by the American Board of Plastic Surgery includes mastery of the following as well:

  • Craniofacial surgery is divided into pediatric and adult craniofacial surgery. Pediatric craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues, such as cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and pediatric fractures. Because these children have multiple issues, the best approach to providing care to them is an interdisciplinary approach which also includes otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, speech therapists, occupational therapists and geneticists. Adult craniofacial surgery deals mostly with fractures and secondary surgeries (such as orbital reconstruction) along with orthognathic surgery. Craniofacial surgery is an integral part of all plastic surgery training programs, and further training is frequently obtained via a craniofacial fellowship for additional expertise.
  • Hand surgery is concerned with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Hand surgery is an important part of training in plastic surgery, as well as microsurgery, which is necessary to replant an amputated extremity. Most Hand surgeons will opt to complete a fellowship in Hand Surgery. The Hand surgery field is also practiced by orthopedic surgeons and general surgeons (see Hand surgeon).
  • Microsurgery is generally concerned with the reconstruction of missing tissues by transferring a piece of tissue to the reconstruction site and reconnecting blood vessels. Popular subspecialty areas are breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery/replantation, and brachial plexus surgery.
  • Burn surgery generally takes place in two phases. Acute burn surgery is the treatment immediately after a burn. Reconstructive burn surgery takes place after the burn wounds have healed. Reconstructive surgery generally involves plastic surgery.
  • Pediatric plastic surgery. Children often face medical issues unique from the experiences of an adult patient. Many birth defects or syndromes present at birth are best treated in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons specialize in treating these conditions in children. Conditions commonly treated by pediatric plastic surgeons include craniofacial anomalies, cleft lip and palate and congenital hand deformities.



A fever isn't an illness itself, but it's usually a sign that something out of the ordinary is going on in your body. Fevers aren't necessarily bad. In fact, fevers seem to play a key role in helping your body fight off a number of infections.

If you're an adult, a fever may be uncomfortable, but it usually isn't dangerous unless it measures 103 F or higher. For very young children and infants, however, even slightly elevated temperatures may indicate a serious infection.

Because a fever can occur with many different conditions, other signs and symptoms can often help identify the cause.

Most fevers go away in a relatively short time — usually within a few days. Not all fevers need treatment with medications. And it's possible for fever medications to have side effects, especially for the very young.


Curing attitudes of stigmatization,
A disease is an illness that affects the body (a single area or the whole system) and/or mind within a single organism (World Health Organization). Basically when a person is in a diseased state, they are no longer classified by modern and traditional medical diagnosis as “healthy”. Some examples of common diseases worldwide are: Influenza A virus, Asthma, HIV/AIDS, HPV, Malaria, and Sickle Cell Anemia. In addition, diseases are generally classified into three categories, which include: Genetic, infectious, and non-infectious.

As is the case with most marginalized groups, people living with a disease(s) are often discriminated against on the basis of their illness. Some researchers have linked negative cultural perceptions of diseased individuals to the common occurrence of discrimination among the ill. The validity of the previous claim remains to be confirmed, however research has shown that cultural differences between the treatment of the ill within traditional and modern societies do exist.

One way to reduce stigma and discrimination of the ill is through education and improvement of community health services and networks. Yet stigma and discrimination of the ill has existed throughout human history in almost all societies and civilizations around the globe, so eradicating its practice is no easy task.

When some of us think of disease we immediately associate it with death and rarely associate disease with life. Although this may appear to be just a matter of commonsense, having a disease does not automatically mean a death sentence. In fact many people who have suffered from a debilitating illness have accredited their disease to teaching them the true meaning of survival. Disease-related advocacy campaigns around the world have focused on survival as their central theme and message because survival signifies hope not just for a future cure but also for life itself. In the end, whether we are diseased or healthy we are all fighting to survive.

In 2006 the World Heart Federation (WHF) leaped from the dreams of a handful of global youth leaders and partners into a fruitful reality as one of the leading disease advocacy organizations in the world specializing in youth advocacy. With chapters in several nations around the world, WHF has taken their advocacy projects from national to local levels of change. Some of their project areas include: Tobacco control, developing advocacy skills, and poor diets and physical inactivity.
Of course beyond the efforts of global civil society agents, youth have also been impacted negatively by disease as in the case of millions of orphans as a result of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, the hundreds of thousands of children who die each year from Malaria and other preventable diseases, and the growing number of acquired diseases among youth in heavily polluted developed nations. As young people we may not be immune to disease, but we can work to prevent discrimination of the ill and celebrate their survival.