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Sunday, July 26, 2009

Types of Bipolar Diseases

Bipolar disorder is also called bipolar mood disorder, manic-depressive illness, manic depression, bipolar affective disorder and manic-depressive disorder. People with the disorder experience unusual shifting of energy, mood, behavior and the ability to function normally. These mood swings are from high periods of mania to low episodes of depression. The disorder can be either mild or severe and the mood swings can be frequent or infrequent. Depending on the symptoms manifested by the person affected, the disorders can be diagnosed according to its different types such as bipolar disorder 1, bipolar disorder 2, cyclothymic disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified.

# 1 Bipolar Disorder 1

Most people suffering from this type of disorder, sometimes called bipolar 1 disorder, experience both the mania and depression. This type of disorder is distinguished from disorder 2 in terms of the duration and severity of the manic phase, which could last anywhere from weeks to a couple of months.

# 2 Bipolar Disorder 2

People with this type of disorder suffer from periods of severe depression that is occasionally accompanied with episodes of mild mania known as hypomania. No delusions are experienced in bipolar disorder 2 but there is still impaired mental functioning.

# 3 Cyclothymic Disorder

People with cyclothymic disorder experience alternate attacks of mild depression and hypomania. It lasts longer than the disorders 1 and 2 with no break in the manifestation of symptoms but is not as severe.

# 4 Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)

This type includes those symptoms and features that don't meet any of the categories of bipolar disorder, such as very rapid alternation between depressive symptoms and manic symptoms, recurrent episodes of hypomanic phase without depression, and hypomanic episodes that are associated with chronic depression.

Of all the types of disorders, bipolar 1 disorder is the most severe type. If left untreated, it will possibly have a high rate of recurrence. It has an estimated rate of about 15% death risk by suicide. Also, it is considered as the third leading cause of death among people aged fifteen to twenty-four years old. It tends to run in families and is a lifelong disorder. Aside from being a hereditary disorder, other factors that can cause this type of disorder are certain illnesses such as hyperthyroidism, brain tumor, and multiple sclerosis, and certain environmental factors such as giving birth, stressful life events, sleep deprivation, stimulants, electroconvulsive therapy, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medication.


Since disorder 1 involves both the manic and depression phases, the symptoms are just the common ones such as unusual happiness and sadness, grandiose delusions, change in eating and sleep patterns, pressured speech and suicidal attempts.

Bipolar 1 Treatments

Most commonly used medications used to control the symptoms of this type of disorder are anti-psychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. Other medications may also be prescribed to help manage restlessness, anxiety, and insomnia. Psychotherapy is also the treatment of choice in some cases.

Having a bipolar disorder, especially bipolar disorder 1 is something that should not be taken for granted since it can really lead to death due to suicide if left untreated. Prompt treatment should be sought once the symptoms occur.

Different Types of Mesothelioma

A disease that has only started to come to light in recent years, mesothelioma is a cancer that normally presents itself in malignant form and results in tumours in and around vital organs of the body. The definition of the word mesothelioma is literally cancer of the mesothelium (-oma being a medical term for cancer). The mesothelium is the sac that lines and protects vital organs such as the heart and the lungs, and this disease causes the cells of the lining to become abnormal and malignant.

The result of asbestos exposure, mesothelioma comes in three forms: pleural mesothelioma; peritoneal mesothelioma; and pericardial mesothelioma. All three types have a variety of associated symptoms, and there are some symptoms that are common to all three types of the disease. In all cases of the disease, sufferers are unlikely to even realise that there is a problem until many years after they have actually contracted mesothelioma from regular exposure to asbestos.

The symptoms of all types of mesothelioma do not generally manifest for several decades after contraction. This can make the disease difficult to diagnose and all too often is too late to save the patient by the time a diagnosis is made.

Pleural Mesothelioma:

The most common form of mesothelioma is pleural mesothelioma. This is where the cancer affects the lungs and the protective lining and cavity of the lungs. The symptoms of pleural mesothelioma result from pleural effusion, which is a build up of fluid between the lung lining and the chest cavity. Sufferers of pleural mesothelioma may experience some or all of the following symptoms: difficulty in breathing, difficulty in swallowing, shortness of breath, persistent coughing, weight loss, fever, coughing up of blood, and rasping.
(Click Here For More Information On Pleural Mesothelioma)

Peritoneal Mesothelioma:

A rarer form of mesothelioma is peritoneal mesothelioma. This is where the cancer affects the stomach and abdomen. The cancer can start in the abdominal area and spread to other parts of the body, but the tumours that press against the wall of the abdomen can cause some or all of the following symptoms: abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, breathing problems, chest pain, bowel obstruction, anaemia, fever, and blood clotting abnormalities.
(Click Here For More Information On Peritoneal Mesothelioma)

Pericardial Mesothelioma:

The last and the rarest of the mesothelioma types is pericardial mesothelioma. This is where the cancer affects the heart and the cavity that surrounds the heart. The tumours affecting pericardial mesothelioma patients can cause some or all of these symptoms: chest pain, shortness of breath, trouble breathing, persistent coughing, and palpitations.
(Click Here For More Information On Pericardial Mesothelioma)

There are also cases of other asbestos related diseases such as asbestosis and respiratory problems that have stemmed from exposure to this potentially fatal material. Anyone that has worked with asbestos should see their doctor if they have any onset of this type of problem or if they are concerned and have doubts.

As you can see, the symptoms for all three types of mesothelioma are non-specific, which means that they could be the result of a number of more common diseases that are associated with the same symptoms. Many of the symptoms are the same as those displayed by viral pneumonia patients, and the disease if often mistaken for something else.

If your doctor is unaware that you have been exposed to asbestos, he or she is unlikely to assume that you may have mesothelioma and will instead test for a number of other more common diseases that are associated with your symptoms. People who have worked with asbestos or who have close contact with someone that works with asbestos should therefore always be vigilant in looking out for any of these symptoms and seeking medical advice if any or all of the symptoms manifest. They should also make their doctor aware that they have worked with asbestos so that no further time is wasted in testing for other types of disease. Much of the delay in diagnosing mesothelioma comes from lack of information and awareness on both the part of the doctor and the patient.

However, it is up to the patient, who is aware of the asbestos exposure, to increase the chances of a speedy diagnosis by making the doctor aware of the circumstances and keeping an eye out of any tell tale signs that mesothelioma may be present.

Kidney diseases

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease is a condition where cysts (cavities) form in the kidney. Some of the cysts do not cause any progressive kidney failure. Other cysts are of the inherited type, which may enlarge and slowly crowd out the normal kidney. Eventually, after a long period of time, the patient may need artificial kidney treatment or transplantation. Symptoms of this disease range from no symptoms at all to blood appearing in the urine.

The inherited type of this disease is autosomal dominant. This means that if one parent has the gene in his/her family there is a 50% chance that each child will develop the disorder. However, even if the child does develop it, there are cases when the condition can be so mild that it would not be detected and would have no significant effect on the patient's health throughout life.


Pyelonephritis refers to infection of the kidney. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by viruses. Most of these can be treated with medication taken in the right dosage for the full time. There are many potential causes of pyelonephritis. The most common cause is some form of obstruction to urine flow. The obstruction could be in the ureter (the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder) or to the outflow of urine from the bladder. Other causes of obstruction include stones, swelling and scarring of the ureter, chronic infection, and tumors. Recurrent infections can also occur when the organisms causing your discomfort become resistant to the drugs that usually destroy them, particularly if patients do not take all of the medication prescribed. If the medication is not taken for the full length of time it was prescribed, it may not kill off the heartiest organisms. These organisms will become even more resistant and the symptoms will come back.

Kidney reflux

Reflux refers to a condition where the urine in the bladder passes back up the ureter to the kidney instead of out through the urethra during the process of urination. The muscles that usually close off the ureter to the bladder do not function normally. The process itself has no specific symptoms. If there is a bladder infection, reflux could cause a kidney infection, which may result in back pain. Reflux is usually not associated with incontinence unless there is associated urinary tract infection, congenital abnormalities associated with the drainage of the kidney, or problems with bladder function.

Systemic lupus and the kidneys

Systemic lupus (an autoimmune disorder) can cause the body to produce antibodies directed against the kidney membranes. Normally, the filtering membranes do not permit albumin and other blood proteins to be lost in the urine. However, when systemic lupus attacks the kidney, the filtering membranes are disrupted, resulting in the finding of protein in the urine. This antibody production can be altered by using immune suppressive drugs such as steroids, immuran, and cytoxine.

Renal acidosis

Renal acidosis refers to the accumulation of acid products in the blood that are not being properly excreted by the kidney. As the acid products accumulate the acidity of the blood goes up. This stimulates the receptors in the brain to speed up the rate of breathing. This can cause the sensation of shortness of breath. It also speeds up the heart rate so the pulse goes up. These are two of the most common symptoms and signs of metabolic acidosis caused by kidney failure.

Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis

This disease is noted to be present, but without symptoms, for long periods of time. It is important to have routine urine tests done at least once a year, as well as your blood pressure checked. Less than 30% of patients with this diagnosis progress to end stage renal disease. There are excellent treatments for high blood pressure, swelling, and anemia, all signs that may relate to glomerulonephritis. When such therapy is started early there is good evidence that they are very effective in delaying progression of the kidney disease. Therapies include diet, weight control, progressing on to artificial kidney or transplant over a long time period.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a form of glomerulonephritis that is classified as an autoimmune disease. Antibodies to some unknown protein, called an antigen, get trapped in the filtering bed of the kidney, called the glomerulus. Once there, this antigen sets up a reaction in the normal cells that activates the so-called "killer cells." These cells are very destructive and result in walling off the antigen. This produces a scar, which destroys the normal architecture of the glomerulus. This condition can be treated with immunosuppressive drugs.


Hemangiomas are common tumors usually found on the skin and commonly called 'birth marks'. They can occur in any organ or tissue. When they are located in the kidney they may cause hematuria (visible blood in the urine). This, in turn, may cause the dipstick test for protein to show a very weakly positive reaction that should not need investigating.

Parenchymal kidney disease

Renal parenchymal disease as seen by ultrasound means that the kidney is damaged and scarred and has lost part of its ability to function. There are many, many types of kidney disease that lead to scarring. Any time that scar tissue forms, kidney function in that area is lost and cannot be regained. Consultation with a nephrologist is very important in order to find out the cause the kidney disease, how severe the damage is, and what can be done to prevent the loss of any more kidney function.

The diagnosis of this disease by ultrasound is confirmed by elevated blood urea nitrogen concentration and serum creatinine concentrations (BUN normal range 10-20 mg%, creatinine .9-1.2 mg%). However, diagnosis is sometimes delayed because there are several types of parenchymal kidney diseases that are very silent in their progression. Some of these diseases are reversible; others can be treated to stop further progression.

Alport's Disease

Alport's disease is believed to be a form of auto-immune disease. The patient's immune system has set up antibodies that act on the tissues of the capillaries in the kidney. Alport's disease goes under other names also. The 2 most typical are Berger's Disease and IgA Nephropathy. The diagnosis of which form of Alport's disease a patient has can only be made from studies of kidney tissue removed by biopsy. The treatment is immuno-suppressive therapy, which is usually very effective in controlling the progression of the disease.

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus is a disease that has symptoms that resemble diabetes mellitus but it is a far different condition. Its major symptom is very frequent urination. This condition may be the result of a deficiency of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that causes the kidney to retain water during times of dehydration. However, it may also be the result of kidney failure to respond to ADH. Under these circumstances, the individual was born without the biochemical receptors in the kidney that respond to the hormone. The disease is treatable. With proper management patients with this problem can lead a normal life.

What are Different Types of Heart Disease?

Heart disease is a huge term that can describe many different conditions. All of these conditions have some effect on the heart or the blood vessels that supply the heart. It’s certainly possible to have several types of heart disease at the same time, which can make it difficult to think of these numerous diseases as separate. The fact that the heart is part of the circulatory system means that disease in one part of the system will have an affect on how all parts work.

Some disease is classified by its effect on the different components of the heart. In broad strokes the heart has four chambers (two ventricles and two atria), muscle, lining, an electrical system, valves, and coronary arteries and veins. Heart disease may be defined by what part of the heart it mostly affects.

Disease of the chambers include many forms of congenital heart disease where a chamber may be missing vital parts like separating walls or can be smaller than normal. Other diseases of the chambers can include an enlarged right ventricle, called cor pulmonale. Congestive heart failure is usually considered a chamber disease, and can be loosely describes as the heart failing to pump enough blood to supply the body.

Muscle heart disease can include many conditions that result in enlarged heart. Most forms of cardiomyopathy fall under this heading. Myocarditis, defined as inflammation of the heart muscle and which can result from things like virus and bacterial infection, is also a heart muscle disease.

The outside of the heart is covered with lining called the pericardium, and the inside is lined with the endocardium. Certain heart disease types specifically affect one of these areas. Most often these are pericarditis and endocarditis. Some forms of endocarditis can be a complication of bacterial infections and those most at risk have usually had heart surgery or have some form of heart disease. To protect against bacterial endocarditis, most people must use antibiotic treatments prior to seeing the dentist or having any type of oral surgery.

There can be many heart disease types that affect the electrical system of the heart. Most of these conditions create unusual heart rhythms. Some don’t require treatment while others need significant medical intervention. Forms of electrical system disease include: heart block, long QT syndrome, tachycardia, atrial flutter, and ventricular fibrillation.

The heart valves include the pulmonary, aortic, tricuspid and mitral valves. The tricuspid and mitral valves are located inside of the heart between ventricles and atria (right and left respectively), and the pulmonary and aortic valves are located right outside the heart.

Diseases involving these valves can include narrowing (stenosis), absence or such significant narrowing that the valves produce no blood flow (atresia), and poor valve function (insufficiency). Valve regurgitation can occur in any valve and means some of the blood leaks back in the wrong direction. Another common valvular heart disease is mitral valve prolapse.

Some of the most common heart diseases are located in coronary arteries and veins. These include angina, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and the interruption of blood flow to the heart through a coronary artery which results in heart attack (myocardial infarction). Ischemia and the atherosclerosis pose great risk for not only heart attack but also stroke.

A few other conditions that affect the heart but aren’t located specifically within or directly outside of the heart, include high blood pressure or hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease. As previously stated, conditions may be present together. A person can have angina, and hypertension for instance or narrowing of coronary arteries ultimately leads to heart attack. Not all conditions are preventable, especially not those conditions resulting from birth defects. However, most people know that some heart disease can be prevented through pursuing a healthy diet and exercise program, and not smoking at all or drinking to excess.

Saturday, July 25, 2009

How is the lifespan of a human divided?

Age is measured by years in life and every birthday is a sign of the age attained by a person and the years gone by since birth. One of the most important points telling on a person age is their years of life other than the visible manifestation of age, say for example, wrinkles and

Acne Tips

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Tips to Prevent Acne with Diet and hygiene tips

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Benzoyl Peroxide is commonly used to treat acne. It has a formulation of two parts benzoyl and one part peroxide. It is used topically to treat acne and is generally found to be effective. However, its efficacy varies from person to person. The use of benzoyl peroxide is also governed by some precautions.
Benzoyl Peroxide

Tips for Choosing an Ideal Acne Face Wash

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Using the Right Acne Cream ideal for your Skin Type

There are a lot of acne creams available in the market and each one promise unique features and benefits to effectively treat acne-prone skin. Making the right choice of acne cream can be difficult due to the number of choices. The best way to find an ideal acne cream is by assessing your skin type.